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 Genetics, Color & Coat Type

Knowing what your dogs genetics are is very important. We take the health of our pooches seriously. When a pup carries either CMR1, DM or HUU, it does not mean they have it. It means that if they were bred with another dog that carried it then some of the new litter of puppies could either carry or have it. Merle is also something to pay close attention to as well. Breeding two Merle dogs together can result in a "double merle". Double merle dogs may have auditory, ophthalmologic, skeletal, and other defects. With that being said, if we have pups that carry either CMR1, DM, HUU and/or Merle they will be sold as "Pet Only" pups unless buyer can convince us of their knowledge and expertise at healthy breeding. We will not sell our pups with or without breeding rights to carless individuals. 

Genetics

Canine Multifocal Retinopathy 1 (CMR1) Affected dogs typically present with multiple, discrete circular areas of retinal detachment between 11 and 16 weeks of age. Fluid accumulates under the detached retina resulting in gray, tan, orange or pink “blisters” in the eye. Progression of retinal changes is slow, ceases by 1 year, and does not lead to blindness.

N = Normal

CMR1 = Canine multifocal retinopathy 1

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with N/N genotype will not have canine multifocal retinopathy 1 and cannot transmit this CMR1 variant to their offspring.

* Dogs with N/CMR1 genotype will not have canine multifocal retinopathy 1, but are carriers. They will transmit this CMR1 variant to 50% of their offspring. Matings between two carriers are predicted to produce 25% canine multifocal retinopathy 1-affected puppies.

* Dogs with CMR1/CMR1 genotype will develop canine multifocal retinopathy 1, an eye disease, and will transmit this variant to all of their offspring.

Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) is an inherited neurologic disorder of dogs characterized by gradual muscle wasting and loss of coordination typically beginning in the hind limbs.

N = Normal/Unaffected

DM = Degenerative myelopathy

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with N/N genoytpe will not have degenerative myelopathy and cannot transmit this variant to their offspring.

* Dogs with N/DM genotype will not have degenerative myelopathy, but are carriers. They will transmit this variant to 50% of their offspring. Matings between two carriers are predicted to produce 25% degenerative myelopathy-affected puppies.

* Dogs with DM/DM may have degenerative myelopathy, a disabling condition, and will transmit this variant to all of their offspring.

Hyperuricosuria (HUU) is an inherited disorder characterized by elevated levels of uric acid in the urine that can lead to the formation of bladder/kidney stones.

N = Normal/Unaffected

HUU = Hyperuricosuria

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with N/N genotype will not have hyperuricosuria and will not transmit this hyperuricosuria variant to their offspring.

* Dogs with N/HUU genotype will not have hyperuricosuria, but are carriers. They will transmit this variant to 50% of their offspring. Matings between two carriers are predicted to produce 25% hyperuricosuria-affected puppies.

* Dogs with HUU/HUU genotype will be affected and are susceptible to develop bladder/kidney stones. They will transmit this hyperuricosuria variant to all of their offspring.

Coloring

Coloring is very precise and can be confusing, especially if you are new to learning how it works. There are so many variants and ways colors work with each other. We have found UC Davis & Animal Genetics are great references and therefor will be using them. However, Dog Genetics is very good as well, just a lot more reading.

A Locus

ay = Fawn/sable
aw = Wild sable
at = Black-and-tan
a = Recessive black

Explanation of Results:

Fawn/sable: Dogs with ay genotype will have a fawn or sable-colored base coat (yellow to red with some dorsal black-tipped hairs) in the absence of Dominant Black; overall appearance of the dog also depends on interactions with other genes including those at the 

E Locus.

* Dogs with ay/ay genotype will transmit this fawn/sable variant to all of their offspring.
* Dogs with ay/aw, ay/at, or ay/a genotype will be fawn/sable and are carriers of other agouti variants. They will transmit this fawn/sable variant to 50% of their offspring.

Wild sable: Dogs with aw/aw, aw/at, or aw/a genotype will have a wild-sable base coat (banded hairs of yellow and black) in the absence of Dominant Black; overall appearance of the dog also depends on interactions with other genes including those at the E Locus.

* Dogs with aw/aw genotype will transmit this wild sable variant to all of their offspring.
* Dogs with aw/at or aw/a genotype will be wild sable and are carriers of other agouti variants. They will transmit this wild sable variant to 50% of their offspring.

Black-and-tan: Dogs with at/at or at/a genotype will have a black-and-tan base coat (black dorsal hairs with tan hair on cheeks, eyebrows, and undersides) in the absence of Dominant Black; overall appearance of the dog also depends on interactions with other genes including those at the E Locus.

* Dogs with at/at genotype will transmit this black-and-tan variant to all of their offspring.
* Dogs with at/a genotype will be black-and-tan and are carriers of recessive black. They will transmit this black-and-tan variant to 50% of their offspring.

Recessive black: Dogs with a/a genotype will have an all-black base coat; overall appearance of the dog also depends on interactions with other genes including those at the E Locus. They will transmit this recessive black variant to all of their offspring.

B Locus

B= Full color

b = Brown (Chocolate)

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with B/B genotype are expected to express undiluted black pigment. They cannot transmit this brown variant to any of their offspring.

* Dogs with B/b genotype are expected to express undiluted black pigment and are carriers of brown. They will transmit the brown allele to 50% of their offspring.

* Dogs with b/b genotype are expected to express diluted black pigment. Black pigment (if present) is diluted to brown; red/yellow dogs have brown noses and foot pads. These dogs will transmit the brown allele to all of their offspring.

D Locus

Phenotype: Base coat colors are lightened (diluted) to paler shades. For example, black becomes a gray-blue color (often called "blue" by breeders) and chocolate brown becomes a pale silvery red (often called "lilac" or "isabella").

D = Non-dilute

d = Dilute

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with D/D genotype are not expected to display dilute coat colors; they have no known dilution variants. They cannot produce dilute offspring or transmit any of the known dilution variants to their offspring.

* Dogs with D/d genotype are not expected to display dilute coat colors, but they are carriers of dilution variants. They will transmit the dilution variant they carry to 50% of their offspring. Matings between two carriers of dilute variants are expected to produce 25% puppies with dilute coat colors.

* Dogs with d/d genotype are expected to display dilute coat colors. They will transmit a dilution variant to all of their offspring.

E Locus
Em= Melanistic mask
E = Black
e = Red/yellow 

Explanation of Results:

Melanistic Face Mask: Dogs with Em genotype will produce melanistic face mask markings, but the visibility of the mask depends on the dog's overall coat color and whether or not expression is overridden by other genes such as white spotting. Dark-coated dogs may have a mask that is indistinguishable from body color.

* Dogs with Em/Em genotype will transmit this melanistic face mask variant to all of their offspring.

* Dogs with Em/Eg, Em/E, Em/e will transmit this melanistic face mask variant to 50% of their offspring.

 Black (E Locus): Dogs with E/E, E/e genotype can produce black pigment in their coats, but the overall coat color exhibited by the dog is also dependent on other genes.

* Dogs with E/E genotype will transmit this black pigment variant to all of their offspring.

* Dogs with E/e will transmit this black pigment variant to 50% of their offspring, and are carriers of red/yellow variants. Matings between two carriers of red/yellow are predicted to produce 25% of puppies with red/yellow-based coat colors.

Red/Yellow (E Locus): Dogs with e/e genotype have inhibited black pigment production in their coats, leading to shades of cream, yellow, and/or red.

K Locus

Phenotype: Dogs with the Dominant Black variant display solid coat coloration in fully pigmented areas or, in some cases, display a brindle pattern.

Mode of Inheritance: Autosomal dominant

N = No Dominant Black

K = Dominant Black

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with N/N genotype are expected to be able to express the Agouti gene. They may display black pigment in their coats, but they can also exhibit a variety of other colors and markings including those produced by hairs with alternating bands of color (Agouti). They cannot transmit this dominant black variant to any of their offspring.

* Dogs with N/K genotype are expected to be unable to express the Agouti gene or exhibit reduced Agouti expression. Dogs with this genotype are sometimes brindle. If not brindle, they are expected to display solid eumelanin pigmentation (no pigment banding in the hair shaft) in colored areas on the body. Overall appearance is also determined by genotype at MC1R (E Locus), Brown (B Locus), merle, and other loci. N/K genotype dogs will transmit this dominant black variant to 50% of their offspring.

* Dogs with K/K genotype are expected to be unable to express the Agouti gene, leading to solid eumelanin pigmentation (no pigment banding in the hair shaft) in colored areas on the dog's body. Their overall appearance is also determined by genotype at MC1R (E Locus), Brown (B Locus), merle, and other genes. These K/K dogs will transmit this dominant black variant to all of their offspring.

S Locus

Phenotype: The extent of white pattern expression on the dog's body varies in piebald/parti/random white spotting. The white markings are typically less symmetrical than those seen in dogs with the Irish spotting or mantle patterns.

N = Non-piebald

S = Piebald

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with N/N genotype do not have any copies of this piebald variant and thus are not expected to display piebald patterning (though they may have other white markings caused by other genes). They cannot transmit this piebald variant to any of their offspring.

* Dogs with N/S genotype have one copy of this piebald variant. They may display no white patterning or some amount of white patterning (varies by breed). They may transmit this piebald variant to 50% of their offspring.

* Dogs with S/S genotype have two copies of this piebald variant and are expected to display some amount of white patterning. White patterning may be extensive in some breeds, with some individuals being nearly completely white. They will transmit this piebald variant to all of their offspring.

Merle

Merle is an incompletely dominant coat color pattern characterized by irregularly shaped patches of diluted pigment and solid color.

Phenotype: The merle pattern is characterized by irregularly shaped patches with diluted pigment while other patches on the coat are fully pigmented in color.

N = Non-merle

M = Merle allele present, size is provided

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with N/N genotype are not expected to display a merle pattern. They cannot transmit this merle variant to any of their offspring.

* Dogs with N/M may display a merle pattern. This pattern varies along a continuum. The amount of dilute patches is dependent on which merle allele(s) are present AND if the dog will show black/brown pigment (eumelanin) 

* Dogs with M/M - Breeding two dogs that possess any of the merle variants may produce "double merle" offspring (homozygous) which may be prone to health problems. Double merle dogs may have auditory, ophthalmologic, skeletal, and other defects and will transmit a merle variant to all of their offspring.

Coat Type

Long Hair/Fluffy

L = Short Hair

l = Long Hair

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with L/L is negative for the long-hair allele. The dog will have short hair and will always pass on the allele responsible for short hair to any offspring.

* Dogs with L/l have both the dominant and recessive alleles detected. The dog will have short hair and carries the gene responsible for long hair. The dog can pass on a copy of either allele to any offspring.

* Dogs with l/l have two copies of the long-hair allele. The dog will have long hair and will always pass on a copy of the long hair allele to any offspring.

Curl

C = Curl

C2 = Curl/Wavy

n = Non-Curl

Explanation of Results:

* Dogs with C/C have two copies of the hair curl allele. The dog will have curly hair, and will always pass on a copy of the hair curl allele to any offspring. All offspring of this dog will have curly hair.

* Dogs with n/C will have curly hair, and carries the gene responsible for non-curly hair. The dog can pass on a copy of either allele to any offspring.

* Dogs with n/n is negative for the hair curl allele. The dog will have non-curly hair, and will always pass on the allele responsible for non-curly hair to any offspring

* Dogs with n/C2  have one copy of the C2 mutation associated with curly or wavy coat. The dog can pass on a copy of either allele to any offspring.

* Dogs with C2/C2 have two copies of the C2 mutation associated with curly or wavy coat. The dog will have curly or wavy hair, and will always pass on a copy of the C2 allele to any offspring. All offspring of this dog will have curly or wavy hair.

* Dogs with C/C2 have a copy of both mutations responsible for curly or wavy coat. The dog will have curly hair, and will always pass on a copy of either C or C2 hair curl allele to any offspring. All offspring of this dog will have curly or wavy hair.

Furnishings

The term "furnishings" refers to the longer moustache and eyebrows seen in dogs with wire hair, dogs without furnishings are referred to as having an "improper coat."

F = Furnishings

n = Non-Furnishings

* Dogs with F/F have two copies of the standard furnishings allele. The dog will have furnishings, and will always produce puppies with furnishings. Dog is negative for Improper Coat.

* Dogs with n/F have one copy of the Furnishings mutation; the dog will have furnishings will have longer hair on the muzzle and eyebrows. The dog can pass on a copy of either allele to any offspring. Dog has 1 copy of Improper Coat, and is a carrier.

* Dogs with n/n is negative for the mutations associated with furnishings. The dog will have no furnishings, and will always pass on the allele responsible for no furnishings to any offspring. Dog has two copies of Improper Coat.

Shedding

SD = Shedding

N = Non-Shedding

* Dogs with SD/SD have two copies of the shedding allele. The dog will have a higher propensity towards shedding and will always pass on the allele to any offspring.

* Dogs with SD/N have one copy of the shedding allele. The dog will have a average propensity towards shedding and will pass on the allele to any offspring 50% of the time.

* Dogs with N/N have no copies of the shedding allele. The dog will have a low propensity towards shedding and will never pass on the allele to any offspring.

The Folks Information

If a genetic, color or coat type is not listed, it's because the dog does not have it.

Maddie - At/At, B/b, d/d, n/EM, E/E, L/L, n/C

Rosie - Ay/At, D/d, n/EM, E/E, n/M, L/L, n/DM, n/HUU

Dirk - At/At, B/b, d/d, n/EM, E/E, n/KB, n/S, L/L

Serg - Ay/At, Em/Em, d/d, b/b, n/DM

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